Complement to existing technology
Lignosulfonate and natural rubber
Lead-acid remains the most economical and practical type of battery for materials handling and other battery powered vehicles.
Up to the 1940s batteries were generally being fitted with plate separators made out of thin wood veneer - but it became necessary for manufacturers to switch to new types of synthetic materials. This, however, caused batteries to perform less efficiently through loss of capacity and it was only then realized for the first time that wood actually contains a substance essential for proper lead-acid battery functioning. The substance was identified as the structural ingredient in the darker parts of wood, called lignin.
Ever since this discovery manufacturers have been finding it necessary to include a small percentage of suitably processed form of wood lignin, called lignosulfonate, also known as an expander, as a supplement to the negative plates of the batteries, (References 1, 2, 3, 4 below).
Natural rubber derived from latex tapped from the Hevea brasiliensis rubber tree has been used as a lead-acid battery separator material since at least 1904, (US Pat 761,345, to Theodore A Willard). It is the material of choice for submarine batteries, load leveling batteries, mining equipment batteries and motive power batteries. Rubber exhibits highly desirable electrochemical properties. It is able to retard antimony transfer, prevent dendrite growth, reduce water consumption and lower the end of charge current of the battery, (Reference 5 below). We identified the chemical constituents that give rubber separators their superior performance. We isolated these constituents, tested their purified form in motive power battery cells that we had very carefully constructed without separators. We confirmed rubber-separator-like performance. Our technology is available for use (1) in the electrolyte via the filling water, suitable for motive power batteries; (2) under license for use in PVC-silica, and PE-silica separators, (solvent, sintered and/or extruded), suitable for all types of batteries; (3) under license for use in conjunction with negative expander materials, suitable for all types of batteries.
Batteryvitamin can be described as an extension to both ligno-sulfonate and rubber technologies. Chemically different, functionally similar. The raw materials that go into the making of Batteryvitamin are mainly obtained from common dye feedstocks, combined with suitable vegetable and mineral oils. In order to work, the liquid version of Batteryvitamin needs to be applied on a regular basis and it is convenient to do this in combination with the normal filling-up water to achieve this requirement. Treatment can help to significantly extend battery life, (see Graphs 1 & 2 , 3 & 4. )
1. VINAL, G W, "Storage Batteries", (John Wiley & Sons, New York, Third Edition 1940), p26, pp 45-54.
2. BODE, H "Lead Acid Batteries", (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977), pp 243, 313, 337.
3. BARAK, M, "Handbook of Batteries", (The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London & New York, 1980), p 231.
4. COSGROVE, J P, "Lignin and Lignosulfonates", (109 Convention - Battery Council International, May, 1999.)
5. PAIK, S L, "The Influence of Rubber Separators on Electrochemical Behavior of Lead-Acid Batteries", (Eleventh Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, California State University, Long Beach, California, January 9-12, 1996) - www.mplp.com/TechSheets/influence.pdf