Types of Plates
FLAT PLATE AND TUBULAR PLATE
Flat-pasted positive construction is typical for deep cycling batteries built in the United States, while in the rest of the world batteries for deep cycling are built with tubular or gauntlet-type positive plates.
The events that led up to the discovery of Batteryvitamin took place in the United States and original battery testing was done in United States, hence the data relates to flat-pasted positive batteries.
Despite the obvious difference between flat plate and tubular plate batteries, importantly, Batteryvitamin does not go to work at the positive plates but at the negative plates of the batteries and since both types of battery employ essentially the same kind of flat-pasted plate negatives, the Batteryvitamin effect that is reflected on the cycling life of both types of battery will follow exactly the same pattern, (also see Life Expectancy A B C D .)
While a tubular positive design is believed to experience slower corrosion of the underlying metal structure of the positive plates by virtue of the metal being embedded in the positive active material, US deep cycling motive power batteries are predominantly fitted with technically superior rubber separators, giving their batteries a virtually identical life expectancy. By the time the battery is about half way through its useful life the tubular concept loses its edge over flat plate and thereafter both types undergo exactly the same rate of wear and tear.
The construction of their positive plates may be different, yet the mechanism responsible for the progressive disintegration of the positive plates is the same in both. Additional testing on tubular batteries has shown the benefit provided by Batteryvitamin is the same in both.
Batteryvitamin can be used in batteries that have high, low and zero antimony content, calcium, tin - and even silver - alloy, as well as copper negative technology.
Diesel-electric, as well as nuclear powered submarine batteries, are deep cycling batteries made either with non-antimonial lead grids to avoid generation of the relatively poisonous stibine gas in the closed environment, or are made with antimonial lead grids and the battery vents fitted with activated carbon gas filters, (US Statutory Invention H816). The way in which these batteries are used makes these batteries susceptible to the effects of corrosion, hence Batteryvitamin would provide an ideal solution to extending battery life.